A Month of Vegan Research: Recruiting Strangers and Friends


The following literature review is part of a series for World Vegan Month. Other essays can be accessed by visiting the essays catalog.


J. Jasper and J. Poulsen.  1995.  “Recruiting Strangers and Friends:  Moral Shocks and Social Networks in Animal Rights and Anti-Nuclear Protests.”  Social Problems 42 (4):  493-512.

Social movement theorists have taken interest in Nonhuman Animal rights activism for a number of reasons, one of them being recruitment.  As I discussed in my review of Elizabeth Cherry’s article, most become vegan because they know other vegans in their social network.

But what if a person doesn’t know any other vegans?  Moral shocks might do the trick.


For instance, I grew up in a rural Appalachian town where the notion of “animal rights” is about as alien as it could be. At 13, I was watching a cooking show with my mother in which the host was visiting a butcher’s shop with pigs’ heads hanging from the ceiling.  Suddenly, it became clear to me where “meat” came from and what it entailed.  I went vegetarian on the spot. Soon after, I wrote to PETA and I received literature that contained even more morally shocking information and images.  I immediately decided to go vegan the day I moved out of my parents’ house and was in control of my food choices.

For a little girl living in Appalachia with no vegan-positive social networks, moral shocks were able to recruit me. Readers should acknowledge that moral shocks are not as straightforward in their effectiveness as they may appear. I explore the nuances of moral shocks in an article I published with Society & Animals, arguing that moral shocks have limited value in an environment inundated with welfare reform and “happy meat” ideology.



Cover for "A Rational Approach to Animal Rights." Shows a smiling piglet being held up by human hands.


Readers can learn more about effective persuasion in the Nonhuman Animal rights movement in my 2016 publication, A Rational Approach to Animal Rights.

This essay was originally published on The Academic Activist Vegan on November 20, 2013.